Tuesday, January 21, 2020
William Gibson's Neuromancer When Neuromancer by William Gibson was first published it created a sensation. Or perhaps it would be more precise to say that it was used to create a sensation, for Bruce Sterling and other Gibson associates declared that a new kind of science fiction had appeared which rendered merely ordinary SF obsolete. Informed by the amoral urban rage of the punk subculture and depicting the developing human-machine interface created by the widespread use of computers and computer networks, set in the near future in decayed city landscapes like those portrayed in the film Blade Runner it claimed to be the voice of a new generation. (Interestingly, Gibson himself has said he had finished much of what was to be his body of early cyberpunk fiction before ever seeing Blade Runner.) Eventually it was seized on by hip "postmodern" academics looking to ride the wave of the latest trend. Dubbed "cyberpunk," the stuff was being talked about everywhere in SF. Of course by the time symposia were being he ld on the subject, writers declared cyberpunk dead, yet the stuff kept being published and it continues to be published today by writers like K. W. Jeter and Rudy Rucker. Perhaps the best and most representative anthology of cyberpunk writers is Mirrorshades., edited by Sterling, the genre's most outspoken advocate. But cyberpunk's status as the revolutionary vanguard was almost immediately challenged. Its narrative techniques, many critics pointed out, were positively reactionary compared to the experimentalism of mid-60s "new wave" SF. One of the main sources of its vision was William S. Burroughs' quasi-SF novels like Nova Express, (1964), and the voice of Gibson's narrator sounded oddly like a slightly updated version of old Raymond Chandler novels like The Big Sleep, (1939). Others pointed out that almost all of cyberpunk's characteristics could be found in the works of older writers such as J. G. Ballard, Philip K. Dick, Harlan Ellison, or Samuel R. Delany. Most damning of all, it didn't seem to have been claimed by the generation it claimed to represent. Real punks did little reading, and the vast majority of young SF readers preferred to stick with traditional storytellers such as Larry Niven, Anne McCaffrey and even Robert Heinlein. Gibson's prose was too dense and tangled for casual re aders, so it is not surprising that he gained more of a following among academics than among the sort of people it depicted.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Condition where peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter are not being met. According to World Bank: Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, and comprises many dimensions. It includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty also encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, and insufficient capacity and opportunity to better oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. According to United Nations: Fundamentally, poverty is a denial of choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society. It means not having enough to food and clothing a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow oneÃ¢â¬â¢s food or a job to earn oneÃ¢â¬â¢s living, not having access to credit. It means insecurity, powerlessness and exclusion of individuals, households and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, and it often implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation. Type of Poverty: Poverty is generally of two types which are as follow. Absolute poverty Absolute poverty is synonymous with destitution and occurs when people cannot obtain adequate resources (measured in terms of calories or nutrition) to support a minimum level of physical health. Absolute poverty means about the same everywhere, and can be eradicated as demonstrated by some countries. Relative poverty Relative poverty occurs when people do not enjoy a certain minimum level of living standards as determined by a government (and enjoyed by the bulk of the population) that vary from country to country, sometimes within the same country. Relative poverty occurs everywhere, is said to be increasing, and may never be eradicated. Psychological Cause of poverty Poverty is regarded as a vicious circle. It is the product of different causes. Some of the thinkers have attributed it to a single cause but as poverty is a multi dimensional problem, multiple factors are responsible for it. According to hennery George, the main cause of poverty is the personal ownership and monopoly of individual on the land. He writes Ã¢â¬Å"in great cities where land is so valuable that it is measured by foot you will find extreme of poverty and of luxury.Ã¢â¬ Marx said the main causes of poverty are the exploitation laborers by the capitalists. Malthus said, poverty increases because of the fact that, while the food production increases in arithmetical progression, the population increase in geometric progression. These views lay emphasis on a singular cause of poverty but modern social scientists consider that poverty is the result of multiple factors. Personal factors: Personal factors play important role in economic status of a person. In this modern scientific era, one may not believe in the fate but no one can deny the importance of personal capacity and efforts in his life style and life pattern. The important personal factors cause poverty is as follows. i) Sickness: Due to sickness a person is unable to work or his income decreases. A major portion of his income is spent on the cure of the diseases. Sickness increases poverty. Hunter has rightly pointed out that Ã¢â¬Å"Poverty and sickness form a vicious partnership each helping the other to add to the miseries of most unfortunate of mankind.Ã¢â¬ ii) Mental disease: Mental disease and frustration also increase poverty. Owing to this, a man looses the balance of his mind by which he is incapable of doing anything. So his family becomes poor and it aggravates poverty. iii) Accident: Accident of any kind may make a person incapable of working, as a result of which he becomes a parasite on society or his income decreases. When income decreases poverty increases. iv) Idleness and extravagance: India is a rich country inhabited by poor. Idle and lazy persons do not work although they are able to work. Hence they remain poor. There are also extravagant persons who can waste any amount of money in no time. So the cause of poverty is not the lower income but excess of expenditure over income. Such persons also spent lavishly during festive occasions like marriage ceremony, many social religious festivals etc, and they always remain poor. v) Demoralizations: Due to lower morale some person are addicted to drinking, prostitution, gambling and other social evils. Such persons spent high proportion of their income on these evil habits and finally become pauper. Biological factors: Rapid growth of population is one of the most important causes of poetry. Malthus has pointed out that the geometric progress of population is the root cause of poverty. Due to the development of medical science, reduction of famine, control of epidemics and natural calamities death rate has decreased. At the same time birth rate has not been effectively controlled. If a man has too many children his standard of living is definitely lowered and he becomes relatively poor.Ã¢â¬ Besides, other factors like the power of fertility of Indian women, early age of marriage are also indirectly responsible for poverty. Global Distribution of Resources Many experts agree that the legacy of colonialism accounts for much of the unequal distribution of resources in the world economy. In many developing countries, the problems of poverty are massive and pervasive. In recent decades most of these countries have tried to develop their economies with industry and technology with varying levels of success. Some nations have become fairly wealthy, including the Republic of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Many developing countries, however, lack essential raw materials and the knowledge and skills gained through formal education and training. They also often lack the infrastructure provided by, for example, transportation systems and power-generating facilities. Because these things are necessary for the development of industry, developing countries generally must rely on trade with developed countries for manufactured goods, but they cannot afford much. Some social scientists argue that wealthier developed countries continue to practice a form of colonialism, known as neocolonialism. The affluence of these countries is based to a large extent on favorable trade with the developing world. Developed countries have been able to get inexpensive natural resources from poorer countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, including oil for power, ores and minerals for manufacturing durable goods, and manufactured goods made by low-wage workers in factories operated by multinational corporations. This practice contributes to the dependency of poorer countries while not raising their standards of living. Economical factors: The most fundamental cause of poverty is economics. The important economical factors are as follows. i) Backwardness of agriculture: Indian Agriculture is carried on with primitive techniques. Due to the absence of modern machines, tools, implements, improved seeds, manures, inadequate irrigation facilities, constant fragmentation of land and exploitation by the landlords etc. Agricultural production hampers to a great extent. Besides these our agricultural system is not sufficient to provide adequate number of jobs or better price for agricultural products. This increase poverty among the rural farmers. ii) Slow and defective industrialization: In India industrialization is taking place at a snailÃ¢â¬â¢s pace, due to inadequate finance, paucity of skilled and technically trained personnel, irregular supply of power and raw materials etc. Therefore it is not possible in India to provide employment in large scale tot he persons who are willing to work. Further the concentration of industries in urban areas also deprives the rural poor from getting employment in industries. iii) Unequal distribution: Distribution of wealth is unequal in India. Wealth is mostly concentrated in the hands of a few. These people after an optimum of investment keep the wealth in iron chests. On the other hand, the people who would have invested it for productive purpose do not get it. This leaves a majority of population in this state of unemployment. iv) Unwise economic policy: Indian is rich in respect of natural resources, but poor in making proper utilization of it. Till now we are not able to make optimum utilization of resources as a result of which it remains unutilized or misused. Sometimes due to defective policy of the government people remain poor. Psychological effects of poverty Psychological research has demonstrated that living in poverty has a wide range of negative effects on the physical and mental health and wellbeing of our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s children. Poverty impacts children within their various contexts at home, in school, and in their neighborhoods and communities. Poverty is linked with negative conditions such as substandard housing, homelessness, inadequate nutrition and food insecurity, inadequate child care, lack of access to health care, unsafe neighborhoods, and under resourced schools which adversely impact our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s children. Poorer children and teens are also at greater risk for several negative outcomes such as poor academic achievement, school dropout, abuse and neglect, behavioral and socio emotional problems, physical health problems, and developmental delays. These effects are compounded by the barriers children and their families encounter when trying to access physical and mental health care. Economists estimate that child poverty costs an estimated $500 billion a year to the U.S. economy; reduces productivity and economic output by 1.3 percent of GDP; raises crime and increases health expenditure Poverty and academic achievement Poverty has a particularly adverse effect on the academic outcomes of children, especially during early childhood. Chronic stress associated with living in poverty has been shown to adversely affect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s concentration and memory which may impact their ability to learn. The National Center for Education Statistics reports that in 2008, the dropout rate of students living in low-income families was about four and one-half times greater than the rate of children from higher-income families (8.7 percent versus 2.0 percent). The academic achievement gap for poorer youth is particularly pronounced for low-income African American and Hispanic children compared with their more affluent White peers. Poverty and psychosocial outcomes Children living in poverty are at greater risk of behavioral and emotional problems. Some behavioral problems may include impulsiveness, difficulty getting along with peers, aggression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder. Ã¯Æ'ËSome emotional problems may include feelings of anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem. Poverty and economic hardship is particularly difficult for parents who may experience chronic stress, depression, marital distress and exhibit harsher parenting behaviors. These are all linked to poor social and emotional outcomes for children. Unsafe neighborhoods may expose low-income children to violence which can cause a number of psychosocial difficulties. Violence exposure can also predict future violent behavior in youth which places them at greater risk of injury and mortality and entry into the juvenile justice system. Underresourced schools in poorer communities struggle to meet the learning needs of their students and aid them in fulfilling their potential. Inadequate education contributes to the cycle of poverty by making it more difficult for low-income children to lift themselves and future generations out of poverty. Violence According to experts, many women become victims of trafficking, the most common form of which is prostitution, as a means of survival and economic desperation. Deterioration of living conditions can often compel children to abandon school in order to contribute to the family income, putting them at risk of being exploited, according to ECPAT International, an NGO designed to end the commercial sexual exploitation of children. For example, in Zimbabwe, a number of girls are turning to prostitution for food to survive because of the increasing poverty. In one survey, 67% of children from disadvantaged inner cities said they had witnessed a serious assault, and 33% reported witnessing a homicide. 51% of fifth graders from New Orleans (median income for a household have been found to be victims of violence, compared to 32% in Washington, DC (mean income for a household
Saturday, January 4, 2020
In Charlotte BronteÃ¢â¬â¢s popular book Jane Eyre, the main theme of the story is finding personal space within the greater society. As her main character, Jane, progresses from childhood through to adulthood, she struggles between the Victorian society life she inhabits and her own inner inclinations. Within the strict social view, Jane, as a glorified servant and a woman, was expected to control all her impulses, emotions and passions, willingly relegating herself to her subservient position so as to avoid any embarrassing social confrontations such as in her confrontations with her cousin and her aunt. As Jane grows through the book, this conflict between societyÃ¢â¬â¢s rules and her inner feelings becomes more and more obvious, but she becomes better able to channel it as is demonstrated during her time at the Lowood school and under the influence of her mentor, Miss Temple. Jane says, Ã¢â¬Å"I can remember Miss Temple walking lightly and rapidly along our drooping line Ã¢â¬ ¦ and encouraging us, by precept and example, to keep up our spirits, and march forward, as she said, Ã¢â¬Ëlike stalwart soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (64), showing one way in which she was able to re-imagine her position and make it work for her own purposes. Jane finally reaches a resolution at the end in which she has found both an accepting home and a social status that permits her some freedom while still retaining her own inner fire thanks to her ability to retain a degree of independence even from her husband. As can be interpreted from this brief summary of the book, one of the key themes revolves aroun d the struggle between the social constraints of Victorian society and the personal need for self-expression and fulfillment in the individual. Janes Moral Life Within this novel, Jane Eyre demonstrates a number of strong morals. For example, one moral she struggles to uphold is the one of self-control. Whether at Lowood or later, she constantly struggles to restrain her behavior within the accepted social boundaries no matter what she is dealing with. Ã¢â¬Å"The fear of failure in these points harassed me worse than the physical hardships of my lotÃ¢â¬ (63). It was devastating to her when she was called out for failing to behave properly. In spite of her hardships, though, Jane also demonstrated strong morals in terms of being humanitarian. Despite her lack of everything, she still Ã¢â¬Å"shared between two claimants the precious morsel of brown bread distributed at tea-time, and after relinquishing to a third half the contents of my mug of coffee, I have swallowed the remainder with an accompaniment of secret tearsÃ¢â¬ (63). She refuses to allow the other girls to suffer if she can help it even as she swallows her own passionate reactions. Perhaps the deepest moral Jane shows is her dedication to love and independence. She does this by trying to take care of others, as already described above, but she is also adamant that whoever she is with must love her enough to let her explore her own way. She resists her feelings for Mr. Rochester because she feels she will be subjugated under his domination. She tells him Ã¢â¬Å"Do you think, because I am poor, obscure, plain and little, I am soulless and heartless? You think wrong! Ã¢â¬â I have as much soul as you Ã¢â¬â and full as much heart! And if God had gifted me with some beauty and much wealth, I should have made it as hard for you to leave me, as it is now for me to leave youÃ¢â¬ (Bronte 291). Rather than accept a lesser position in life, Jane is willing to go out and earn what she feels she deserves.
Friday, December 27, 2019
It had been love at first sight, the day I met Tom. That stormy night so many years ago, I can remember every last detail of it. The second IÃ¢â¬â¢d seen him, our eyes had locked. He was tall, had chocolate brown hair and eyes I could stare into all day. I knew instantly I was in love. A mutual friend had seen the intent gaze we shared and introduced us. And from then on, everything just got better and better. It was like living a dream. He took me out to dinner, met my parents Ã¢â¬â they loved him, he even agreed to come shopping with me. HeÃ¢â¬â¢d have done anything for me, and I would have for him. We were literally inseparable. I remember when he had had to go away for two weeks on business. IÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Married life was just as wonderful as IÃ¢â¬â¢d imagined, we had the occasional argument, but whenever we did Tom would make the most romantic gestures to make up. Once he scattered red rose petals all over our bedroom and littered the place with candles, the day after weÃ¢â¬â¢d had a row. Not the most original thing in the world I know, but it worked. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t stay in a mood with him for long. WeÃ¢â¬â¢d been trying for a baby for a long time, with no success. WeÃ¢â¬â¢d even tried IVF treatment, but no such luck. As a last resort we were beginning to consider adopting - neither of us particularly wanted to, but we were desperate for kids. So when I discovered I was pregnant we were both absolutely ecstatic. It was the cherry on the cake to the perfect relationship. I took extra care to do everything right leading up to the birth. DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t take a drop of alcohol; cut down on the caffeine Ã¢â¬â my beloved coffee; made sure I read the label three times whenever I took any medication; I even gave up horse riding which IÃ¢â¬â¢d done since I was about five. I loved horses and I hated not being able to ride for nine whole months. But there was no way I was risking my baby, I was way too grateful just to be pregnant in the first place. Everything seemed to be going fine, I went for numerous scans and check ups and got the A-Ok each time. Leading up to the birth me and Tom were so excited albeit nervousShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Song American Pie 948 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesexuberance in my brother, Spencer and I. We would jump and dance on the couch during the fast parts, and sway and spin during the slow. The lyrics were exciting, but also really tragic. McLean evokes vivid imagery in the over 800 words of Ã¢â¬Å"American PieÃ¢â¬ (Moyer). The intro, outro, chorus, and each verse tell their own stories. For a seven year old, jesters stealing crowns, warnings about satan, and marching bands fighting seem particularly exciting. The lyric Ã¢â¬Å"a generation lost in spaceÃ¢â¬ was definitelyRead More The Plays of Tennessee Williams1740 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHe once said Ã¢â¬Å"I believe that writing or any form of creative work was never meant by nature to be a manÃ¢â¬â¢s way of making a living, that when it becomes one it almost certainly loses a measure of purityÃ¢â¬ (Lewis 54). This statement shows t hat Williams was a genuine writer who used his plays and poems to express his own thoughts. Williams was known for his Southern Gothic writing style. This is Ã¢â¬Å"a style of writing practiced by many writers of the American South whose stories set in that region are characterizedRead MoreNotes On Writing And Writing990 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFrom Reading To Writing Ã¢â¬ ¨ Throughout my life, writing has been a positive influence. Writing was a coping mechanism and it truly helped to form the thoughts I wanted to say, although I was never able to verbalize them. 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Eugenides employs a heterodiegetic narrative, focusingRead More Mrs. Hayashis Creative Outlet Essays1277 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMrs. HayashiÃ¢â¬â¢s Creative Outlet Women who assume the traditional role of staying at home to care for their children and their household responsibilities often need a creative outlet to express themselves, their ideas, or just to get away from monotony they experience in the day after day domestic routine. Many women find various forms of art a fulfilling way to satisfy their need for personal expression. Similarly, in the short story Ã¢â¬Å"Seventeen SyllablesÃ¢â¬ by Hisaye Yomamoto, the Ã¢â¬Å"stay-at-home-momÃ¢â¬ Read MoreLiterary Critics Of Edgar Allan Poe1693 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEdgar Allan Poe is credited to be one of the best writers, editors, and literary critics of all time. His poetry and short stories are what majority of people recognize him for. His long and intriguing stories about mystery and the macabre are just some examples of his classic writings. At first, Edgar Allan Poe was referred to as the inventor of the modern detective story and a specialist in the science fiction genre. It was not until later in his life that people began to acknowledge him as oneRead MoreThe Tragic Death Of Virginia Woolf1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere have been many tragic moments throughout the years, especially back when women werenÃ¢â¬â¢t treated unequally. Years have gone by and many women have fought for what they believed in which was equality between men and woman. In the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s there were two people that tragically lost their lives fighting for what they believed in and what they sought out for. Women in past didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have rights or a voice, so this lead for a difficult era for women to have an opinion in anything, but to cater to the manRead More Loneliness to Insanity and Madness in A Rose for Emily and The Yellow Wall-Paper1545 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnarrator isolates her from stimulation of any kind. Eventually, Emily is a recluse trapped in a deprecated home, and the narrator in Gilmans story is a delusional woman confined to her bed. A study of the characterizat ion and setting of A Rose for Emily and The Yellow Wall-Paper demonstrates how the oppressive nature of patriarchy drives the women in both stories insane. Ã The patrimony of a man destroys Emily as her father smothers her with his over-protectiveness. He prevents her fromRead MoreJane Austen s Love With Love1104 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA hopeless romantic; a person in love with love; a whimsical daydreamer - you will often find people of these types reading romance novels. Maybe they are fulfilling their need for a yet-to-be-discovered soul mate, or perhaps they are just quenching their thirst for adventurous passion. Either way, the romance genre is booming, but only a few authors can grasp the pure essence of true love. Jane Austen is one of the select few romance genre geniuses, using slice-of-life situations and relatable people
Thursday, December 19, 2019
From my early childhood and even in my everyday life now, I have met and continue to meet very special people with vastly different disabilities. My mother always told me to respect each person I meet and that helped me a great deal when I would meet people that were different than me. We are all crafted from the same skin and bones. We all have a purpose. IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to share a few stories about my memorable experiences with disabled persons. Growing up, my father traveled around the world and my mother worked full time so I was in a childcare program from kindergarten until fourth grade. In this childcare, I was exposed to many new disabilities. Of those children one was autistic, one wore hearing aids, and the other was bound to a wheelchair due to cerebral palsy. How do I remember these individuals so well? Because we would eat breakfast together, play games together, color together and grow together throughout elementary school. To me, they were just people. We clicked and we stood up for one another. This exposure helped me be open-minded in the ways of making friends with people that werenÃ¢â¬â¢t like Ã¢â¬Å"everyone else.Ã¢â¬ Essentially, this is how I made a great lasting relationship with Bobby, a young man with Down syndrome. Every Memorial Day weekend from the time I was born until I was eighteen, my family would go to a YMCA campground for a fun getaway. Around the time that I was seven, I fondl y remember meeting Bobby. I was doing arts and crafts with my brotherShow MoreRelatedAttitudes Towards Disabled People Are Not Exactly Ideal.1521 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Attitudes towards Disabled people are not exactly ideal. Personally, I am disabled and I have firsthand knowledge of how many disabled people are treated in society. Disabled people have feelings just like people that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t disabled. Rude stares and hateful comments shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be something disabled people have to deal with. That is why I think the way society treats disabled people needs to change. As a disabled person I feel that, I have to deal with rude comments and actions from society all theRead MoreThe Benefits of Therapeutic Riding1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAs of 2011, it has been reported that there are 650 million disabled people in the world (Ã¢â¬Å"DisabilitiesÃ¢â¬ ). Though this number is high, it is greatly underestimated because disabled people are commonly isolated and stigmatized by their community (Ã¢â¬Å"DisabilitiesÃ¢â¬ ). After hearing of this extremely high number of disabled people, I then ultimately decided I would write my research paper on ways to help the disabled. Therapeutic riding has been actively helping individuals with disabilities for decadesRead MoreUnderstanding the Disabled Essay1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmind of an able-bodied individual upon seeing a disabled person will undoubtedly pertain to their disability. This is for the most part because that is the first thing that a person would notice, as it could be perceived from a distance. However, due to the way that disability is portrayed in the media, and in our minds, your analysis of a disabled person rarely proceeds beyond that initial observation. This is the underlying problem behind why disabled people feel so under appreciated and discriminatedRead MoreImmersion Week Reflective Paper : Neumann Family Services1584 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesName: Alexis Turnage Site Visit: Neumann Family Services Date of Your Experience: 8/31/2016 Immersion Week Reflective Paper Neumann Family Services (NFS) is an organization that provides services to those who have an intellectual or developmental disabilities and also includes people who have mental health issues. They provide services to 18 years or older. NFS provide many services to their members which include housing services, job services, day programs, clinical support, and case managementRead MoreThe Disabled in Academic Field Essay1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Disabled in Academic Field While some colleges and universities offer at least some accommodations for students with different disabilities, more should be done to support these students to ensure that they are successful throughout college and throughout life. All schools should have some type of accommodations, whether big or small, so they do not limit the education options of a potential student with disabilities. A future student may have found a perfect program at a particular college;Read MoreAdaptive Physical Education Is Physical Education Which1359 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesappropriate for the person with a disability as it is for a person without a disability. It is an extremely useful class especially in the high school setting. Disabled children are able to do exercises they normally cannot do, experience full gym classes with non disabled students, and learn new and useful fundamental skills they will use for the rest of their lives. To teach a class like this the teacher needs to learn the FAIER model, lean different skills to teach disabled children and be ableRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article Disability And The Urban Environment : A Perspective On Los Angeles Essay1412 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesminority of disabled people and segregated city within the article Ã¢â¬Å"Disability and the urban environment: A Perspective on Los Angeles.Ã¢â¬ Published in 1986, the article still holds relevance in modern society, and is supported by Inger Marie Lid in her article from 2013 titled Ã¢â¬Å"(Dis)ability and the experience of accessibility in the urban environment.Ã¢â¬ HahnÃ¢â¬â¢s article uses case studies and anecdotes to successfully acknowledge the complicated aspects of the urban environment that challenge disabled peopleRead MoreEssay about Living with Disability1650 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesable-bodied people to truly understand what disabled people go through they need to see disabled people more; see their lives. If seeing disabled people more often became reality, they wo uld be viewed as normal more, and it would make interacting easier for both sides. Disabled people have a hard life, but it does not mean it is not worth living. Nancy Mairs, Andre Dubus, and Harriet McBryde Johnson all have physical disabilities, and have written about their experiences and views. In their writings, theyRead MoreDiscrimination Against the Disabled Essay1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespeople, the disabled donÃ¢â¬â¢t choose to be the way they are, but still our society alienates them. There are different types of disabilities, some type of disabilities are; mental disability, physical disability, learning disability and socializing disability. These disabilities are seen as weakness in our society that hence contribute to the stereotype that leads to the discrimination against the disabled. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There are a significant number of people who instinctively hate the disabled, although itRead MoreThe Controversy Surrounding Selective Infanticide Essay1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesit is coming from someone disabled. Further analyzation of the text provided will support this claim. Unspeakable Conversations by Harriet Johnson recounts JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s experience as a disabled lawyer debating with Peter SingerÃ¢â¬âan able bodied Princeton professor who believes that parents should be given the option to kill their disabled babies. Johnson experiences a broad spectrum of emotions in regards to SingerÃ¢â¬â¢s position. First, one of disdain; Singer believes that disabled people are Ã¢â¬Å"worse offÃ¢â¬ and
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Describe about the Project Communication and Risk Management for Former Organization. Answer: 1.1 Based on the case study, a deal was sanctioned between ACME Fabricators and Arbor Industries for developing a landscape project for the former organization at the chosen location in a semi-rural Angle Vale. The particular agreement between the two agencies was sealed with an agreed price range of $175,000, which represents a fixed price contract without the involvement of contingency amounts. However, the project was concluded three weeks before the scheduled time of delivery with Arbor experiencing an over budget amount for completing the project at 14.3%. it is determined by assessing the case study that the specific scenario was faced by Arbor due to the involvement of several project risks like heavy machineries or damages caused by the wild animals in the newly prepared and levelled lawn as part of the project construction site. The overall situation faced by the both parties critically signifies the questions regarding the involvement of a proper risk management plan in the right place for the landscaping project (Burke 2013). In order to investigate the answer, certain concepts related to the necessary elements of project risk management should need to be evaluated and discussed adequately. Based on the suggestions obtained from Burke (2013), risk management plan is generally referred as the document representing some important set of methods for managing the key risks by assigning responsibilities to the people handling such risks. Apart from that, the effective involvement of the risk management plan is responsible for outlining the risks associated with budget, defining the categories of different risks, and recognising the probability and effects of the overall matrix. It is worth to mention that a planning activity is conducted after the accomplishment of other planning exercises like scopes, schedule, and communication associated with the identified project (Phillips 2013). Therefore, the efficacy of the planning activity depends on the identified factors involving the project management. The inherent risks of the project are assessed by conducting suitable examination of the mentioned variables. The development of an ideal risk management plan depends on analysin g all activities of a certain project plan, where the project managers including the project team need to study the necessary baselines. In this case, cost, scopes, schedule, and quality of the projects are the integral parts of the subsidiary management of the specific project, as the investigation should need to be conducted by considering these indispensable factors. The next phase suggests the project charter requiring all high-level of information including the milestones, requirements, assumptions, and constraints of the project (Schwalbe 2015). After that, the project team must need to form a document containing the information such as the roles, interest, and levels associated with the project stakeholders influencing the overall context. Here, the project team of Arbor has developed its risk management plan based on its experiences related to the similar jobs formerly performed in the city sides. The management team did not think the need of a formal project management plan by relying mostly on their faulty knowledge and skills regarding the handling of a project. A formal project management plan relies heavily on the predefined steps, where the informal planning process only articulates some faint assumptions about the specific milestones, scopes, and costs associated with the identified job (Kerzner 2013). Therefore, it can be stated that the landscaping project initiated and engaged by Arbor was carried out without the involvement of a risk management plan in the proper place. 1.2 The particular project analysed within the case study is known to be a landscaping project requiring proper budget and beautification. The expected quality of the project depends profoundly on the level of similarity with the provided drawing on or before the tender stage. Therefore, the management or the project team is extensively required providing careful attention to each step and activities performed during the critical stages of the project. The process of landscaping is practiced by the individuals over the centuries, where countless ideas and concepts are generating over the time. In case of modern landscaping, the processes are developed for bringing key changes to an area of land by decorating or planting plants, terrain, and structures (Kendrick 2015). Hence, overflowing options are there in the landscaping project, where the specific case study provides priority on the softscape type. In order to promote a safe and risk-free environment for its staffs, ACME had devel oped an aim of creating a sustainable landscape and ensuring natural habitat. Based on this particular understanding, it is substantiated that the particular category of project largely deals with different kinds of risks, which require proper classifications by the project team in a mean to handle and mitigate those professionally. Therefore, the necessary involvement of a risk management plan should be involved for structuring and controlling the performance of the project (Binder 2016). Based on the feedback provided by Haimes (2015), potential amount of threats and risks associated with the project is largely influenced by the activities of human population and changes in the respective climate. Considering such fact, the risk management aspect of the company must need to emphasise on assessment, measurement, and mitigation of the identified risks. The management is expected to conduct these processes by taking a wide range of values including the entire property, air and water quality, and biodiversity. From the analysis, it is clear that the industrial risks are highly integrated with the specific type of project, where the project management team is needed to compose with a realistic workforce by determining the impacts of weather and uncertain delivery of the project materials. Hence, the risk management team should need to act from the beginning of the process due to identifying the certain kinds of project risks that are present in the particular job (Marchewka 2014). Based on the case study, both ACME and Arbor failed to develop a successful project based on the outlined developed initially. The failure of the project is critically caused by the frequent unawareness of the managers from the certain project team regarding the big hammers that were about to hit in different stages of completion process. One of the most common incidents related to this particular nature of projects is that someone from the team or the organization actually knew about the challenges, but did not i nform the project manager about its possible occurrence. Therefore, the certain risk is significantly observed in the communication associated with the multiple stages of project management (Hwang and Ng 2013). Managers must need to pay due attention for classifying the individuals risks and promote a well-desired delivery of the project outcomes. 1.3 From the analysis of the provided case study, it is clear that difficulties and inefficacies in the communication are largely responsible for downsizing the actual outcomes of the project. Kendrick (2015) has signified the importance of communication in managing and developing a project appropriately in line with the previously set targets and expectations. The inefficiencies involving in the communication ultimately lead to the inadequate responses to the identified risks occurring during the different parts of project. For not only this project, but every project requires the involvement of proper strategies for formulating and shaping up the responses according to the particular risks encounter in different environments. Risks usually carry a negative connotation with the outcomes and activities of the project; where there are positive risks found in the project as well (Verzuh 2015). The overall concern should need to be provided to the negative risks affecting the configurat ion of useful responses by the project team. The uncertain events are mostly accounted for such impacts impinging on the project objectives largely as acknowledged by the case study. From the application of landscaping project, the responses according to the risk events can be categorised in two different categories, such as threats and opportunities, as opined by Cooke (2016). The key responses like avoiding, transferring, reducing, accepting, and contingency significantly influence the emergence of threats to a project. Alternatively, sharing, exploiting, enhancing, and rejecting are the certain types of response adequately provide opportunity to the similar project (Alhawari et al. 2012). Risk responses causing Threats As mentioned earlier, avoid, transfer, reduce, accept, or contingency are the major responses from the members of project team to cause substantial threats to the entire process. Risks are often avoided for bypassing them through changing the project in some way. The similar type of response is observed within the particular case study related to ACME and Arbor. Some or entire portion of the Risk is also transferred to a third party, for example insurance agencies. Apart from that, the risks reduction action is the frequently used response to the risks where the approach is based on reducing either the likelihood of the risk occurrence or the potential impact it will have on the entire project (Turner 2016). In some cases, the risk may be accepted conceivably due to the lower impact of its likelihood. In such cases, the project team requires to identify a potential contingency plan in the right time. The example of risk acceptance is majorly observed i n the provided case study, where Arbor attempted to make the savings from somewhere else within the project. Lastly, the contingency plan is put forwarded by the project team for responding the specific risk if it is realised. Risk Responses causing Opportunities The earlier mentioned factors significantly provide multiple opportunities to the overall project to develop sizeable opportunities from different perspectives. Initially, the risks are shared within the project team, partners, or suppliers for maximising the understanding of appropriate requirement resource or technology for reducing the same while expanding the opportunities (McNeil, Frey, and Embrechts 2015). Often the change in technology or market creates extended risks for the whole project. Exploiting these risks can sufficiently help the team to make adjustments and extract benefits from the certain changes. As mentioned earlier, every risk can be categorised in both favourable and unfavourable types. Enhancement is a response developed by the team member for cutting down the associated risks and increasing the probability of opportunities could have on the project. Lastly, risks are rejected and certain benefits from the identified oppor tunities are discarded at the same time. The specific type of response requires the application of a contingency plan in the right place for ensure the opportunities to occur (Karlsen, Folke-Olsen, and Torvatn, 2013). The specific type of risk response is noted during the handling of project by Arbor within the case study where the heavy damages to the lawn caused by the heavy machineries are rejected by the project team. Figure 1: Risk Response to the Certain Type of Project (Source: As created by the author) 1.4 It is clear from the application of the case study that the either the managers from the project team or the financial manager from ACME did not provide proper response to the different hazardous events associated with the landscaping project. Neither some of the appropriate responses reflected from the previous discussion are regarded by the project team nor the managers of Arbor or spokesperson from ACME. As a result, developing an affluent risk management plan by the manager of the project team had encountered a significant amount of stress during the development of entire landscape well according to the plan. Therefore, the managers of the entire project team responsible for accomplishing the job could have included some useful steps for guiding the overall outcomes with accordance to the possible expectations. According to Kerzner (2013), as a project manager or member of a project team, risks are needed to be managed sufficiently on a day-to-day basis. In order to achieve such objective, employing a systematic risk management framework is highly necessary by the project team with the inclusion of five core risk management processes in a well-organized manner (Gido and Clements 2014). With the application of such process, possible benefits can be transferred to the project for facilitating their comfortable functioning and ultimately providing positive experience to every party involved with the project. Here, determining the positive or negative aspects of an identified risk is an imperative concern for the project manager for developing a smarter, profitable, and streamlined project by sorting out the risks and capitalising on the specific risks providing positive opportunities. All of these estimated factors contribute to the five risk management steps for driving the delivery of a simp le and effective risks management procedure. Step 1: Risk Identification Based on the case study, the managers from the project team could have uncover, identify, and explain the risks caused by different diverse activities having their impacts on the project goals or outcomes (Haimes 2015). A wide range of techniques is available from the project management context to find the project risks. The management team could have applied a formal project management process to prepare a Project Risk Register supporting the specified process. Step 2: Risk Analysis The likelihood and consequence of each risk should have needed to be determined by the project team once after their identification. In this step, the managers and members of the project team developed by Arbor were required developing certain understanding regarding the nature and potentiality of the risks concerning the goals and objectives of overall project. The information gathered from the step is also needed to be incorporated within the project risk register (Pritchard and PMP 2014). Step 3: Risk Evaluation and Ranking Based on the magnitude of the identified risks, the manager of the Arbor project team could have evaluate or rank the risks organised by their combination of likelihood and consequence. The proposed process certainly helps the management to understand whether the risk is tolerable or it is momentous enough to warrant the existing treatment. From the analysis of the case study, it is observed that the project team of Arbor has put forwarded a limited effort in evaluating or ranking the risks occurring in different course of time to alter their existing approaches and treatment to the project. Step 4: Risk Treatment Risk treatment is also referred to as Risk Response Planning, which is the most significant step of project management for assessing the top ranked risks and setting out a plan for treating or modifying those and achieve the acceptable levels (Heldman 2013). In case of Arbor, the inappropriate or inadequate risk responses were developed by the project team causing the materialization of noteworthy challenges experienced by the both parties. Neither the risk mitigation strategies and preventive plans nor the contingency plans were in suitable place causing specific level of struggles in the activities and treatment. Step 5: Risk Monitoring and Review The implication of the project risk register comes significantly within this particular step. The utilisation of the risk register helps to track, monitor, and review the identified and assessed risks (Glendon, Clarke, and McKenna 2016). The absence of a formal risk register throughout the project had substantially caused different dilemmas to overall process. Figure 2: Recommended Risk Management Planning Process (Source: As created by the Author) 2.1 Communication is the integral factor in the process of developing a project and aligning the process in line with the expected outcomes. Hence, the project manager is responsible for creating a superior communication plan by providing guidelines to the different aspects of a project. There are different elements combined to support the formation of an efficient communication plan. These components mostly cover the method and frequency, which vary according to the specific needs of the project (Teller, Kock, and Gemnden 2014). Hence, the managers must need to understand the inherited risks associated with the project with the aim of developing a precise knowledge of the communication plan. The specific process importantly guides the managers realise specific goals associated with the project outcomes and delivery. Based on the application of the case study, proper communication was not present in the entire project between the service provider and receiver. The particular factor h ad helped to surface challenging outcomes during the closure of the project. Hence, some of the useful evidence strengthening the importance of communication should need to be outlined specifically in the following paragraphs. Expectations The imperative involvement of a project communication plan helps to set the standards on how and when the communication will take place (Archibald and Archibald 2016). Edwards and Bowen (2013) have indicated that setting the exact tone of communication concerning the project is one of the vital responsibilities included in the roles played by the project managers. Furthermore, accurate execution of the process helps the manager to control the project while ensuring the necessary information is fairly distributed amongst the various stakeholders. Therefore, setting the standards of communication can effectively helps to determine the project progress among the all involving parties to think about the necessary changes that could influence on meeting the project standards. Consistency Consistency is an important factor for handing each dilemma associated with the project. Binder (2016) believes that a solid communication plan applied within the project sufficiently helps to enrich consistency among each participant of the project team after following the steps mentioned in the plan. It makes sure the similar information of the changes and requirements related to the project is delivered to all the stakeholders (Lundgren and McMakin 2013). Hence, communication within the project management process restricts the spread of misleading information among the all stakeholders to prevent delays in the undertaken job. Productivity Productivity highly contributes to the successful delivery of a project, which is highly enhanced by the involvement of regular communication. According to Karlsen et al. (2013), members of a project team will deliver successful performance regarding the identified job based on the level of comfort, which is significantly driven in the positive direction by keeping them in the loop on different occurrences. In case of developing a project team, the members should need to be equipped with all the compulsory information about their roles; otherwise, they will frequently abandon their works for seeking the missing information (Bryde, Broquetas, and Volm 2013). Hence, a successfully integrated approach can be developed with the critical involvement of communication facilitating the comprehensive and collaborative performance regarding the project. Outcomes As opined by Hilson and Simon (2012), project manager should need to play the responsibility of leading the project team to achieve the desired outcomes as expected by the key stakeholders associated with the job. The requirements of the project are extensively impeded by the deficiency of proper communication in the right place to develop advanced connection with the major stakeholders (Hillson and Simon 2012). Developing a superior connection with the stakeholders influenced by the advanced communication will appropriately help the project manager to realise the actual needs and requirements of the project. Subsequently, it helps to provide positive influence on the development of final product meeting all the expectations. Figure 3: Importance of Communication in Project Management (Source: As created by the Author) 2.2 Teller and Kock (2013) explained that there are different modes of communication, on which the manager of project should need to be familiar, as the individual is responsible for managing the project successfully toward its outcome. The communication involving a project has multiple facets, which a manager should need to have the capability to handle them effectively. The mode of communication depends on the particular perspective influenced by its overall nature (Crawford 2014). Here, the project manager should need to develop awareness based on the primary modes of communication, which are distributed in four different perceptions: Project Perspective Organizational Perspective Formality Perspective Channel Perspective From the viewpoint of the provided case study, communication can be segregated from the perspective of formality stating the process to be formal or informal. Considering the primary communication between the finance manager of ACME and the project manager from Arbor, it can be treated as the informal mode of communication. This particular type of communication involves informal discussions and meetings among the concerning parties. It is importantly observed that formal communication provides a considerable amount of influence on the day-to-day functioning of the organization, where another set of communication network provides dramatic impact on the regular activities performed within the organization (Coombs 2014). This particular type of communication network is called informal communication. It is worth to mention that the individual type of communication does not exist in the hierarchical structure of project management or a firm. Though a great deal of functions and activities happen as a result of informal communication network, proper importance is not provided to the specific mode of communication due to its failure to establish a formal network among the major parties (Fang and Marle 2012). The analysis regarding the manner of informal communication used to develop the project, it can be proposed that Grapevine Communication Network is used for delivering the final outcome. Figure 4: Communication Mode used in the Specific Project (Source: As created by the Author) 2.3 As identified from the case study, the regular submission of project progress report to ACME could have improved the outcomes of overall job at its closure. Based on the earlier discussion, advanced communication would have helped to improve the scenario driving the project manager of Arbor to submit the progress report in multiple intervals to the finance department of ACME until the completion of overall project. The successful delivery of the projects requires addressing specific needs, based on which the project managers should need develop their awareness. The increasing awareness for the project managers depends on the establishment of some important methods, such control, collation of information, and communication (Wachinger et al. 2013). However, the manager and team members of a project need to provide high level of importance to determine the level of control and reporting required. Controlling the progress of the project relies profoundly on the information highlighted in the progress report, and the regular submission of such report would support the managers figuring out ways to facilitate the success of project outcomes. In this particular process, the managers need to consider two important factors. Firstly, they need to balance the information regarding time, cost, efforts, and collection of data for achieving the optimum benefits. Secondly, the proper communication can be established suggesting clearly the importance of information and its vital ability to provide success (Blais 2015). 3. As revealed from the previous analysis, communication is always held to be the number one driving factor behind the success of a project. Based on the collected information, it is believed to be the foremost priority regarding the roles played by the project managers. Therefore, the project manager must need to be master communicator for landscaping the hope of success, especially during the high chances of the project is expected to meet its potential failure. However, some significant barriers should need to be identified and overcome by the organizational managers for driving the establishment of successful communication and developing a vivid flow of information (Hopkin 2014). Barriers to Project Communication in an Organization Uncertainty of Message Incorrect reflection of the actual scenario or failure to provide viable understanding to the responsible stakeholders about the project progress critically causes various uncertainties in the message. Faulty Presentation Due to the ineffective choice of communicational medium with the key stakeholders of the project often provides faulty presentation related to the vital aspects of the project. Unstated Assumption Unstated assumptions refers to the different assumptions assumed by the both party based on the specific message or information. Incompatible Viewpoints Due to the involvement of dissimilar perspectives between the both parties, the channel of communication is largely affected to meet failure (Crawford 2014). Overcoming the Barriers of Communication Mitigation of Differences in Perception Engaging the right individuals in the project team and appointing a skilful manager in the management post of the entire project through the proper induction program would help them to develop policies for eliminating the difference among the perception of both parties. Use of Simple Channels or Mediums for Communication Instead of focusing on the utilisation of complicated approaches and techniques, managers of the project team should need to apply simple and easy to understand channels or mediums for generating a clear understanding to the primary stakeholders. Avoiding Information Overload In order to avoid the overloading of information, manager of project should need to prioritise their works with maintaining proper sequencing (Bryde, Broquetas, and Volm 2013). With the help of the process, the problems associated in different phases of the project can be assessed and determined by the managers to develop a precise progress report to the responsible party. 4. Based on the analysis of the case study related to the project management agreement between ACME Fabricators and Arbor Industries, the 4.5-hectare site as the new premises of the office at Angle Vale requires a huge sum of investment as determined by the senior executives of ACME. In order to avoid the large manufacturing cost for the business, the senior administration of ACME had decided to form a tender document and initiating the production of the proposed site until a project management firm is agreed to accept the tender for the certain quantity. The fundamental reason driving the management or executive of ACME to take such decision is based on significantly avoiding the risks associated with manufacturing and constructing an office premise for the company (Gido and Clements 2014). The senior executive group of ACME had pictured some land contouring to allocate a sum of $232,000 notionally for the identified project. Subsequently, the company passed the tender to Arbor with an agreed bid price of $175,000 for completing the project within the allocated time schedule. Therefore, it can be arguably noted that the specific approach was adopted by ACME comprehensively with the aim of providing assistance in the area of project risk management. Additionally, based on the case study, the fact is also reflected that application of learning curves are used by the management of ACME ensure accomplishment of entire project within the deadline (Alhawari et al. 2012). Referencing to the suggestion provided by Burke (2013), the principal involvement of learning curve demonstrate the completion of a particular project will require less time if the associated tasks are performed in a repeated manner. Due to such understanding, the entire responsibility of completing the project is handed over to Arbor for attaining the aims of project management. References Alhawari, S., Karadsheh, L., Talet, A.N. and Mansour, E., 2012. Knowledge-based risk management framework for information technology project.International Journal of Information Management,32(1), pp.50-65. Archibald, R.D. and Archibald, S., 2016.Leading and Managing Innovation: What Every Executive Team Must Know about Project, Program, and Portfolio Management(Vol. 22). CRC Press. Binder, J., 2016.Global project management: communication, collaboration and management across borders. CRC Press. Blais, K., 2015.Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives. Pearson. Bryde, D., Broquetas, M. and Volm, J.M., 2013. The project benefits of building information modelling (BIM).International Journal of Project Management,31(7), pp.971-980. Burke, R., 2013. Project management: planning and control techniques.New Jersey, USA. Coombs, W.T., 2014.Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. Sage Publications. Crawford, J.K., 2014.Project management maturity model. CRC Press. Edwards, P. and Bowen, P., 2013.Risk management in project organisations. Routledge. Fang, C. and Marle, F., 2012. A simulation-based risk network model for decision support in project risk management.Decision Support Systems,52(3), pp.635-644. Gido, J. and Clements, J.P., 2014.Successful project management. Nelson Education. Glendon, A.I., Clarke, S. and McKenna, E., 2016.Human safety and risk management. Crc Press. Haimes, Y.Y., 2015.Risk modeling, assessment, and management. John Wiley Sons. Heldman, K., 2013.PMP: project management professional exam study guide. John Wiley Sons. Hillson, D. and Simon, P., 2012.Practical project risk management: The ATOM methodology. Management Concepts Inc.. Hopkin, P., 2014.Fundamentals of risk management: understanding, evaluating and implementing effective risk management. Kogan Page Publishers. Hwang, B.G. and Ng, W.J., 2013. Project management knowledge and skills for green construction: Overcoming challenges.International Journal of Project Management,31(2), pp.272-284. Karlsen, J.T., Folke-Olsen, O. and Torvatn, T., 2013. Project Risk Management: Use and Benefit of Various Tools.International Journal of Risk and Contingency Management (IJRCM),2(4), pp.79-101. Kendrick, T., 2015.Identifying and managing project risk: essential tools for failure-proofing your project. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. Kerzner, H.R., 2013.Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley Sons. Lundgren, R.E. and McMakin, A.H., 2013.Risk communication: A handbook for communicating environmental, safety, and health risks. John Wiley Sons. Marchewka, J.T., 2014.Information technology project management. John Wiley Sons. McNeil, A.J., Frey, R. and Embrechts, P., 2015.Quantitative risk management: Concepts, techniques and tools. Princeton university press. Phillips, J., 2013.PMP, Project Management Professional (Certification Study Guides). McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. Pritchard, C.L. and PMP, P.R., 2014.Risk management: concepts and guidance. CRC Press. Schwalbe, K., 2015.Information technology project management. Cengage Learning. Teller, J., Kock, A. and Gemnden, H.G., 2014. Risk management in project portfolios is more than managing project risks: A contingency perspective on risk management.Project Management Journal,45(4), pp.67-80. Turner, R., 2016.Gower handbook of project management. Routledge. Verzuh, E., 2015.The fast forward MBA in project management. John Wiley Sons. Wachinger, G., Renn, O., Begg, C. and Kuhlicke, C., 2013. The risk perception paradoximplications for governance and communication of natural hazards.Risk analysis,33(6), pp.1049-1065.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Perceptions Of Faith In Young Goodman Brown Perceptions of Faith in ?Young Goodman Brown? Throughout ones journey in life, our individual perceptions of faith in God, in mankind, and in ourselves, guide us along our path. In the absence of clarity of our faith, one is led to believe the norm is what proves to be popular within a society. Nathaniel Hawthorne's, ?Young Goodman Brown?, demonstrates to the reader, man's inherent attraction to evil, the intertwined depths of evil, and that a lack of understanding of faith; can not only destroy ones life, but also steal from the beliefs which binds us together in commonality. Even with a clear understanding of the Puritan attitude, the reader is left with the dilemma that seems to impose the idea, that faith in God alone is but a dogma in the absence of faith in and an understanding of humanity. Therefore, we resolve that it is not good enough to choose between good and evil; we must be all embracing of the doctrine of faith and forgiveness, so that we can function in a contributory way within our community. Is Young Goodman Brown's encountering with the Devil merely a test of his own faith? Or perhaps, is he simply intrigued by the mystique of evil forces that lie outside the realm of what he considers acceptable behavior in his Puritan times? ?With this excellent resolve for the future, Goodman Brown felt himself justified in making more haste on his present evil purpose? (634). Through his writing Nathaniel Hawthorne is able to develop a distinct set of doctrine that existed within the mind of Goodman Brown. Thus, the reader can assume that one trait of Puritan Society is a lack of tolerance for forgiveness. It is no wonder that Puritanism is known for a somber outlook on life, and a tendency to be immovable. A Puritan Society might find it difficult to see perfection in it's own members, especially if they do not recognize their own tendency toward hypocrisy. Young Goodman Brown's perception of his faith abandons him because he lacks a clear understanding of his experience in the woods. So in his ignorance he simply continues to criticize others due to the events that have taken place in his misguided life. He resolves that those he had previously viewed as pious, are now hypocrites in his eyes. ?Men of dissolute lives and women of spotted fame, wretches given over to all mean and filthy vice and suspected of horrid crimes? (640). It is clear that in the absence of the understanding of the freewill of mankind, Goodman Brown sees only immoral, sanctimonious, mischief-makers all around him. Thus, throughout the course of his life, Brown is overwhelmed with the burden of judging those around him. ?A stern, a sad, a darkly meditative, a distrustful, if not a desperate man did he become? (642). Unfortunately, even though Goodman Brown's ability to withstand the allure of evil sustained him through his own perceptions of faith, he lost somethin g he can never regain; his belief in the goodness of mankind. When faith is shaken, or lost, whether in religion as an institution, or in ourselves for not being as constant as we think others are being, we change somehow. Like losing one's virginity, when the mystery of the church is questioned, or made more real to us, like it was to Goodman Brown in the forest that night, we are never the same. With a loss of blind faith comes the realization of a world filled with the horrors we pray to rectify, only to realize that we ourselves are as guilty as anyone. Our salvation comes with a clear understanding of forgiveness and the communion of saints which enables each of us to pick up the pieces of our unsuccessful attempts at perfection and forge ahead in acceptance of a less idealistic coexistence. Bibliography Young Goodman Brown Nathaniel Hawthorne English Essays